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膜结构看台抗风能力的决定因素
来源:http://www.sdcscp.com/ 发布时间:2022-04-22
一,膜结构的竖立原因是风的破坏
1、 The reason for the erection of membrane structure is the damage of wind
1. 膜在空气作用下的振动
1. Vibration of membrane under the action of air
当风绕过膜结构时,涡流和气流会分离,产生复杂的空气力。当膜结构的刚度较大时,整个结构保持静止;膜结构刚度较小时,激发结构振动,然后气动力产生动力作用,可能激发风致振动。
When the wind bypasses the membrane structure, the vortex and air flow will separate, resulting in complex air force. When the stiffness of membrane structure is large, the whole structure remains stationary; When the stiffness of membrane structure is small, the structural vibration will be excited, and then the aerodynamic force will produce dynamic action, which may stimulate wind-induced vibration.
此外长拉索因风雨影响作用也会产生一个较大变化幅度的振动,而膜结构自重轻、刚度小、自振频率低,是一种比较典型的风敏感数据结构,特别是膜结构看台这种有悬挑、体型进行变异系数较大的膜结构,这时风的动力系统作用也是不容我们忽视。
Due to the influence of wind and rain, the outer cable will also produce a large variation amplitude of vibration. The membrane structure has light self weight, small stiffness and low natural vibration frequency. It is a typical wind sensitive data structure, especially the membrane structure grandstand, which has cantilever and large body variation coefficient. At this time, the role of wind dynamic system can not be ignored.
2、膜面抗撕裂强度低
2. Low tear strength of film surface
膜表面撕裂是一种在大风、暴风雪、阵雨等恶劣天气中经常发生的破坏现象。主要原因是薄膜材料虽然具有较高的抗拉强度,足以承受经度的张力,但其抗撕裂强度较低,因此其在撕裂方向上的损伤比直接拉伸损伤严重得多。如果膜表面因局部应力集中而轻微损坏,则迅速转变为撕裂力的作用,切断一种或几种织物纤维后逐渐或立即发生撕裂。
Membrane surface tearing is a destructive phenomenon that often occurs in bad weather such as strong wind, snowstorm and shower. The main reason is that although the film material has high tensile strength, which is enough to withstand the tension of longitude, its tear strength is low, so its damage in the tear direction is much more serious than the direct tensile damage. If the membrane surface is slightly damaged due to local stress concentration, it will quickly change to the role of tearing force, and tearing will occur gradually or immediately after cutting one or more fabric fibers.
3.膜结构支架安装不符合标准
3. The installation of membrane structure support does not meet the standard
(1)膜表面平整、预张力不足或膜材蠕变导致膜材松弛,可能降低膜材的整体刚度,从而导致膜材撕裂;
(1) The film surface is flat, the pretension is insufficient or the film material creep leads to the relaxation of the film material, which may reduce the overall stiffness of the film material, resulting in the tearing of the film material;
(2)连接松动、接头转动受限或边缆断裂也会造成膜材撕裂;
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(2) Loose connection, limited joint rotation or broken side cable will also cause membrane tearing;
(3)膜面形状凹陷、膜材松弛问题引起的不均匀积雪、积水,施工管理过程中企业由于进行吊装、张拉不当而使膜面局部发展产生的应力主要集中,施工、实用教学过程中利物穿刺膜面等,也可能影响导致膜面的社会撕裂。
(3) Uneven snow and ponding caused by the concave shape of the membrane surface and the relaxation of the membrane materials. In the process of construction management, the stress caused by the local development of the membrane surface due to improper hoisting and tensioning of the enterprise is mainly concentrated. The puncture of the membrane surface by objects in the process of construction and practical teaching may also affect the social tear of the membrane surface.
2.膜结构看台的风阻力设计
2. Wind resistance design of membrane structure stand
1.风洞试验确定风阻数据
1. Wind resistance data determined by wind tunnel test
在体育场膜结构看台的抗风设计中,风荷载往往是主要的控制荷载。在确定风荷载标准值时,通常是根据《建筑结构荷载规范》中给出的50年一次的局部风压来确定基本风压,只有通过风洞模型试验才能更准确地确定膜结构表面的风压分布系数。
In the wind resistant design of stadium membrane structure bleachers, wind load is often the main control load. When determining the standard value of wind load, the basic wind pressure is usually determined according to the local wind pressure once every 50 years given in the load code for building structures. Only through the wind tunnel model test can the wind pressure distribution coefficient on the surface of membrane structure be determined more accurately.
在风洞试验中,应准确模拟风速廓线、自然风湍流和雷诺效应。膜结构看台是一种轻型结构,在风荷载作用下具有强几何非线性,受特征湍流影响较大,风与结构的耦合效应不可忽略。因此,有条件时应进行膜结构的气动弹性模型试验,以获得更符合实际情况的"风振"特性和风压分布数据。
In the wind tunnel test, the wind speed profile, natural wind turbulence and Reynolds effect should be accurately simulated. Membrane structure stand is a light structure, which has strong geometric nonlinearity under wind load and is greatly affected by characteristic turbulence. The coupling effect between wind and structure can not be ignored. Therefore, if possible, the aeroelastic model test of membrane structure should be carried out to obtain the "wind vibration" characteristics and wind pressure distribution data more in line with the actual situation.
2、抗风设计考虑因素
2. Wind resistance design considerations
(1)设计时应考虑当风速可以达到企业某一临界值时,膜结构看台的振幅进行不断发展增大直至系统结构以及毁坏的自激振动(颤振等),同时我们还应充分考虑低风速时所产生的限幅振动(涡激共振、抖振等);
(1) When designing, we should consider that when the wind speed can reach a certain critical value of the enterprise, the amplitude of the membrane structure stand will continue to develop and increase until the system structure and the self-excited vibration (flutter, etc.) are destroyed. At the same time, we should also fully consider the amplitude limiting vibration (vortex induced co vibration, buffeting, etc.) produced by low wind speed;
(2)在设计中,应定期将膜表面拉入该状态,以提高膜表面的抗风强度;
(2) In the design, the membrane surface should be pulled into this state regularly to improve the wind resistance of the membrane surface;
为了考虑风荷载的动力效应,在确定风荷载尺度值时应考虑风振系数。
In order to consider the dynamic effect of wind load, the wind vibration coefficient should be considered when determining the scale value of wind load.
(4)在安装过程中,通过对膜面施加预张力,使膜面在给定的几何形状和边界条件下进行张拉,从而获得抗外力的能力。
(4) During the installation process, the membrane surface is tensioned under the given geometry and boundary conditions by applying pretension to the membrane surface, so as to obtain the ability to resist external forces.
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